Publication Ethical Policies

  1. Obligations of the Editor
    • Neutrality  The submitted manuscripts are evaluated regardless of race, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, ethnicity, political philosophy of the authors.
    • Confidentiality  All manuscripts are confidential documents and will not be shared / shown to anyone without the permission of the editor. Any information about the manuscript will be disclosed to anyone except the author, reviewers and potential reviewers.
    • Disclosure of Information and Conflicts of Interest  Unpublished data contained in the submitted manuscript will not be used by editors or reviewers in their own research without the explicit consent of the author.
    • Decision on Publication  The editor will decide on the publication of submitted articles. However, before publishing any article, the editor will take into account the legal obligations regarding defamation, copyrights and plagiarism. The editor can share the decision with other members of the Editorial Board, Advisory Board or with reviewers. In the event of any rejection of any article by the reviewer, the editor may solicit two new reviewers.
  2. Obligations of Reviewers
    • Editorial Decisions  Reviewers assist the editorial staff in making decisions and may also assist the author to improve the quality of the manuscript.
    • Delays and Deadlines  When a reviewer does not feel competent enough to evaluate the research presented in the manuscript, or if he finds himself unable to provide his report in time, he must inform the editor without delay in order to give him time to contact other reviewers.  
    • Standards of Objectivity, Civility and Respect   The reports must be objective. Personal remarks and criticisms directed at the author or hurtful remarks directed at the text content are not eligible. The opinion of the reviewer must be clear, well-argued and respectful of the author.
    • Indication of Sources   The reviewer must identify appropriate publications not cited by the author. Any such indication must be accompanied by an appropriate comment. The reviewer should draw the editor's attention to any similarity, any overlap between the manuscript and previously published data.
    • Disclosure of Information and Conflicts of Interest  Information and ideas obtained through anonymous replay are confidential and should not be used for the personal benefit of the reviewer. Reviewers should not accept reviewing manuscripts where this may result in a conflict of interest arising from competitive, collaborative or other relationships with the authors.
  3. Obligations of the Authors
    • Information Validity  The information contained in the manuscripts submitted for publication must present the results of the authors’ research as well as an objective discussion of such results and their importance. The underlying data must be presented correctly. Fraudulent and consciously inaccurate information is considered unethical and unacceptable.
    • Originality and Plagiarism  Authors must ensure that their study is  completely original and if they have used other persons’ books or content / material, that must be properly cited. Similarity index must be less than 19% and single source similarity index must not be more than 5 %.  
    • Multiple publications  An author(s) should not submit manuscripts representing the same study to more than one journal (or book). In case of multiple publications, the authors must give the reference of the first publication and be free from the copyright of the original publisher.
    • Paternity of the Manuscript  Only persons having made significant contribution to the study in question should be considered to be authors. If other people have been involved in some aspects of the research project, they should be mentioned in the acknowledgments. The lead author must ensure that all co-authors and only they are included in the list of authors of the manuscript, that the co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript, and that they have agreed to submission of the manuscript.
    • Disclosure of Information and Conflicts of Interest  All authors must indicate, as a result of their biographical presentation, any conflicts of interest that may affect their proposed publication. Funding for research projects that made the study possible must be indicated.
    • Errors in Publishing  If the author discovers an important error or an inaccuracy in its publication, his / her obligation is to quickly inform the editor and to consider, in agreement with the person in charge, the withdrawal of the article or the publication of the information about the error.
    • Authors to ensure that, the manuscript contains nothing that is abusive, defamatory, libelous, obscene, fraudulent, or illegal, and is not against any institution / university, armed forces, federal / provincial governments.
National Defence University, Islamabad